Monday, April 27, 2020

Residents of this coastal Georgia town helped save a tabby building that survived the 1863 burning of Darien, a scene in the movie 'Glory'

The Adam Strain building presides over tabby ruins (Landmark Preservation)
Missy Brandt Wilson grew up surrounded by history and Spanish moss in Darien, a coastal Georgia town that once rivaled Savannah for port activity. She was particularly fascinated by the Adam Strain building, a picturesque two-story structure that overlooked rows of tabby ruins and the waterfront.

Over time, the condition of the shuttered circa 1813-1815 commercial building declined.

“I would put my hands on the building and pray on it, and say, ‘Please hold on until someone can save you,’” said Wilson.

View of waterfront (Landmark Preservation)
That the Darien landmark was still standing on the bluff during Wilson’s teen years was something of a miracle. It had survived two fires – most famously during the Civil War when Federal troops torched Darien in June 1863 – and several hurricanes.

Darien’s destruction by black troops, under orders from a virulently anti-slavery white officer, caused a howl of protest across the South and even in newspapers in the North. Those favoring emancipation were split on whether the act was barbarity or a necessary message. (The burning of Darien was made famous in the 1989 film “Glory.”)

The Strain building was repaired after the war and saw a rebirth for several decades before it was used for storage following World War IIMade of oyster shell tabby and stucco, the oldest structure in Darien was beloved by its 2,000 residents, who worried for its future as its appearance worsened.

The years rolled on. The building’s condition had become so precarious by 2008 that the Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation placed it on its "Places in Peril" list.

Now, after several campaigns to save the Strain -- including a time where it looked like the building would be demolished -- Wilson’s and others’ prayers have been answered: A Marietta, Ga., couple has purchased the building and an annex and plan to restore them.

Milan and Marion Savic have taken on a big project. They must first stabilize the crumbling building before restoration begins. Their hope is to eventually lease the building for retail space and open a museum in the one-story adjoining annex.

“We want to bring it back to something beautiful,” Marion Savic recently told the Picket. “We are not tearing something down to bring something else in.”

Extensive framing inside the Strain (Landmark Preservation)
Residents and officials hope the Savics’ investment will have a significant economic impact. Darien, hit hard by the economic slowdown a decade ago, wants to attract more retirees who live along coastal Georgia and motorists who get off Interstate 95 to take in history, the small shrimping fleet and the natural beauty of the area.

The preservation of the Strain building, which sits on the southeast corner of Broad and Screven streets, is just one piece – albeit a significant one – in any plans to boost the small downtown district, which has enjoyed a resurgence in recent years.

The Savics are committed to doing their part, and observers credit preservation-minded residents and social media for their role in helping to save the building from demolition.

Among those the Savics have hired for the project is preservation planning consultant Rebecca Fenwick of Ethos Preservation in Savannah. Like others, she touts the building’s tabby construction, distinctive roof line, large buttresses, corner quoins, metal shutters and stepped gable parapet.

“It stands very proud overlooking the river,” Fenwick says. “Here is a building still standing. Your heart cries out, it has been vacant so long.”

Tabby building sat above busy waterfront

As legendary coastal Georgia historian and author Buddy Sullivan points out, the Adam Strain Building did not attain its name until after the Civil War. The builder’s name is not known with certainty.

Supports were added after fires, hurricanes (Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation)
But the construction techniques may well have been inspired by planter and slave owner Thomas Spalding, who used tabby on nearby Sapelo Island. Tabby is a type of cement made from crushed oyster shells and was popular in the region for several centuries leading up to the Civil War. Stucco is placed on the exterior to protect is from water damage.

Very few tabby structures remain along the coast.

Sullivan says the town’s heyday in the first half of the 19th century was due to the Altamaha River, which delivered agriculture goods, including cotton, from the state’s interior. Rice and other crops were grown in McIntosh County and surrounding counties.

The Strain building was used to store cotton prior to shipment in 1861 and 1862 before the Union naval blockade clamped down on Georgia’s coast.

In an article he wrote last year for McIntosh Life, a special section of the Darien News, Sullivan described a conjectural drawing of how the waterfront likely looked by the mid-1830s, a few years after Scottish Highlanders settled there.

Warehouse ruins near the Strain (Wikipedia: Jud McCranie)
“The two-story building later known as the Strain Building is shown in the sketch as an upper bluff structure. The waterfront is depicted as being alive with activity: schooners loading baled cotton, Oconee boxes unloading cotton, traffic in dray wagons, coaches and horses along the shore, and cotton factors inspecting the latest deliveries from upriver.”

Fire raged through town during Civil War raid

By then, Savannah was well into it ascendance of being Georgia’s principal port, as more goods were being sent there by railroad. Darien’s economic fortunes suffered a small downturn in the decades before the Civil War.

Then war came, and the Federal blockade of Southern ports put a squeeze on the South.

By summer 1863, coastal towns knew that where the Union army was going, emancipation of slaves was soon to follow. That fact permeated society in Darien. Most of the town’s 500 white souls had fled before June 11, frightened by the blockade and the deployment of African-American troops on nearby St. Simons Island.

On that day, Darien was largely vacant.

Darien held little strategic value to the Union, but Col. James Montgomery, commanding the 2nd South Carolina Volunteers, supposedly believed it was a safe haven for blockade runners.

Col. James Montgomery
Montgomery apparently had another reason for shelling, looting and burning Darien, leaving only a few buildings standing among the charred ruins.

Steven Smith, site manager for Fort King George Historic Site in 2013 when the Picket wrote about the town’s burning, said Montgomery “wanted to make a political statement. Here was a town built on the backs of slaves.”

Montgomery ordered Col. Robert Gould Shaw and the famed 54th  Massachusetts Infantry to participate. While Shaw didn’t mind the looting to help resupply his troops, he opposed setting the town to torch. He apparently relented under threat of court-martial.

The 2nd South Carolina Volunteers was largely comprised of freed slaves, while the 54th Massachusetts had many freedmen and business professionals.

The 54th Massachusetts was in the area to recruit freed slaves, destroy Southern crops and take out Confederate assault works.

Scene from "Glory" shows Federal troops arriving
Sullivan says while the Strain building’s interior was lost to fire set by Union troops, the exterior walls held up. Most of the town was destroyed, including virtually all the waterfront.

Darien was slow to rebound from the war, and the timber industry for decades largely replaced the rice-based economy.

It found new use as grocery, hardware store

Around 1870, Adam Strain, a Civil War veteran of the 5th Georgia Cavalry, purchased and restored the building.

Sullivan wrote in McIntosh Life: “Strain utilized his building in a variety of ways from the 1870s through the 1890s. He specialized in groceries, dry goods and hardware, as well as operating a prosperous ship chandlery to furnish the numerous sailing vessels frequenting the ports at Darien and Doboy Island to load cargoes of raw timber and processed lumber.

An 1885 insurance map indicated the building was a general store with sleeping rooms upstairs.

Strain’s two sons, William H. Strain and Robert A. Strain, assumed ownership of the business after their father’s death in 1897, renaming it Adam Strain’s Sons.”

1890 Sanborn insurance map shows Strain
building at SE corner of Screven and Broad
The Strains put a new wood framing inside the building. It currently supports the existing second floor and is independent of the tabby. “It was an upgrade of the building at the time,” said Fenwick, the preservation consultant.

Wilson likens it to a building within a building.

At some point over the years, it was used to store antiques and house or produce shoes. “There were hundreds of children’s boots and shoes all over the place,” Savic said. She estimates the building has not been used for about 50 years and what remains inside dates since the Civil War.

The annex served as a bank from 1913 and 1961 and until recently was the site of law offices.

As for the larger building, it was sold from the family estate after the Strain brothers died in the 1920s and was used primarily as a commercial warehouse and other uses described above.

By then, Darien’s timber fortunes had almost ceased to exist and the town turned to fishing and other small industries.

'The building means so much'

Over the years, town residents and those who moved away lobbied for the boarded-up Strain Building to find new use and jump-start more activity downtown.

“The building means so much to so many people,” says Mandy Harrison, executive director of the Darien-McIntosh County Chamber of Commerce. “People get their prom and wedding photos taken there.”

Strain interior (Landmark Preservation)
The Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation continued to advocate that it be kept and restored. “Raising public awareness of the development threat to the building holds promise to galvanize local and state-wide commitment to broker a reasonable resolution for this iconic structure.”

A 2009 report by a planning group said Darien considered the Strain "an important historic resource and is urgently working to ensure its preservation." The price tag for buying, stabilizing and restoring the building was estimated at $2 million. Nothing came of it at that time.

Meanwhile, the Savics -- who maintain two businesses in Marietta -- were longtime visitors to St. Simons and would occasionally stop by Darien. They fell in love with its homes and history. They made several offers to the property owner but could not agree to terms.

Last summer, the then-city manager said a local resident had filed a safety complaint; an inspection by a hired structural engineer found the building to have extensive wear and damage and to be uninhabitable, the Darien News reported. The engineer suggested it be demolished.

The situation came to a head in July 2019 after the city issued a demolition permit and orange barrels were put in front of the building. The demolition request was made on behalf of the Strain owner, the newspaper reported.

“I was pretty sure the wrecking ball was coming in 24 hours,” said Wilson, once chairman of the  McIntosh County Historic Preservation Commission. She now lives in Athens, Ga.

Downtown has grown since this view of the Strain (Courtesy of Kit Sutherland)
At some the point, the order was postponed. It was clear no one wanted to see a huge part of the town’s history gone. (The Picket reached out to the current city manager but received no reply.)

The Savics eventually reached a deal with the owner. They will spend several times that in stabilizing, repairing and transforming the building into an attractive beacon.

“A good wind storm could probably knock it down,” Savic told the Darien News in early February.

What couple has planned for the Strain

As of mid-April, the Savics were waiting for final engineering plans for the project. It’s possible stabilization work can begin by May 1 and continue for three to six months.
While interior structural elements are there, contractors will stabilize walls, rebuild some tabby areas and then place new stucco on the exterior.

“Everything that is usable will be taken out and stored during the restoration process. Everything that is usable will be put back in,” said Savic.

The building was full of boxes, shoes and more (Landmark Preservation)
The couple wants the Strain building to meet requirements for the National Register of Historic Places and they will pursue economic incentives, including federal and state tax credits, available for such preservation.

Given the current look of the building interior, the Savics are planning for the Strain to have a post-Civil War feel.

They expect the Strain will have retail space, “some sort of businesses where people can gather, community space. Part of it might be an event space.”

Town's story is bigger than the Civil War

The Savics are thinking of using the annex for a maritime museum, emphasizing Darien’s timber, cotton and rice past, and perhaps its small shrimping industry. Among a handful of museums in the area is one dedicated to the burning of the town during the Civil War, but it is not fully staffed.

1921 photo includes Strain building at far left (Courtesy of Kit Sutherland)
Kit Stebbins Sutherland, a retired historic preservation planning consultant living in Atlanta, grew up in Darien and owns a house lot near the Strain building.

She believes the story of Darien should go beyond its early days and the Civil War. She is particularly interested in the second heyday of the town after the end of slavery.

The main commercial activity used to be in an west-east direction, following the Altamaha River and other tributaries to the Atlantic Ocean. Construction of Interstate 95 to the west forever changed Darien, Sutherland argues.

Blessing of fleet in 1973, Strain building in back (Courtesy of Kit Sutherland)
Traffic was diverted to U.S. 17 (which runs north-south) in the early 1970s and much of the eastern side of town was demolished to handle the U.S. 17 widening, Sutherland told the Picket.

The other down side, she says, is that Darien was basically bypassed when that section of I-95 opened.

Sutherland wants the area – which touts its affordability relative to other coastal communities -- to have better schools and economic opportunities and a more proactive and progressive approach to preservation and growth.

She laments the loss of what the downtown used to look like -- its benches, awnings and trees. “It is a very pedestrian unfriendly streetscape.”

A belief that project will provide big boost

To be sure, there is growth occurring in Darien. Near the Strain are fish and Mexican restaurants, a produce market, wine shop and other retail.

High-end condos going up along the waterfront have a colonial Spanish look. While increased investment in Darien was welcome, the look is not pleasing to everyone; critics believe the style detracts from a classic Darien waterfront aesthetic.

The approval of the design brought “out the inner preservationists,” Wilson said.

Stabilization is expected to start soon (Landmark Preservation)
The Savics, meanwhile, are in it for the long haul. They have a home on nearby Union Island and eventually will live in the area for much of the year.

Harrison, with the chamber of commerce, says Darien is on the way up.

“This is a place where you can come slow down. We have a lot of ecotourism and historical tourism,” she says. “Everybody who comes here falls in love. You get out of the rat race and into calmness.”

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Atlanta History Center is honored by Georgia Trust for major restoration of Battle of Atlanta cyclorama painting

Restoration work in December 2017 (Atlanta History Center)

The Atlanta History Center has been recognized for its meticulous restoration of the Battle of Atlanta cyclorama painting, a 360-degree depiction of a critical moment in the July 1864 battle.

The Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation on Friday announced an Excellence in Restoration award to the center.

Completed in 1886 in Milwaukee, the cyclorama was show in a few cities before coming to Atlanta. The oil-on-canvas painting was displayed for decades in Grant Park but its condition deteriorated over the years and it needed a thorough restoration. In 2014, the city and the Atlanta History Center agreed to have it moved and restored at the center’s campus in the Buckhead neighborhood.

The massive painting was rolled into two scrolls and taken by truck to a new building at the history center. Swiss, German and American conservators spent months on the project and the painting and restored diorama opened to the public in February 2019.

“Through digital interactives, an introductory film projected onto the painting, and a variety of unique artifacts and activities, visitors to the new exhibit are encouraged to think critically about how history is made,” the Trust says of the exhibit.

Excellence in Restoration awards recognize projects that depict the form, features and character of a historic building as it appeared at a particular period of time. Restoration requires sensitive upgrading of mechanical systems and other code-required work to make the site functional. This year, the Trust presented three Excellence in Restoration awards.

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Ford's Theatre offers online programs on Lincoln assassination

History buffs and others will want to take note of some interesting programming coming available this week. Ford's Theatre in Washington, DC will begin live streaming digital programming Tuesday and throughout April to commemorate the 155th anniversary of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. • Article

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Colt revolving rifle bullets fired by Illinois troops among hundreds of artifacts recovered at Arkansas' Prairie Grove battlefield park

Recovered round from Colt revolving rifle (Prairie Grove Battlefield State Park)
Colt revolving rifle (center) -- Hmagg, Wikipedia
Removal of underbrush at the epicenter of a ferocious battle in northwest Arkansas has allowed archaeologists to recover about 400 Civil War artifacts, including spent bullets fired from innovative Colt revolving rifles.

The Colt Model 1855 was used by two flanking companies of the 37th Illinois Infantry at the Battle of Prairie Grove on Dec. 7, 1862. The design was similar to Colt revolvers – with a rotating cylinder – and the weapon became a repeating rifle by adding a stock and barrel. 

While it had mixed success during the war, the rare rifle was largely effective at Prairie Grove and two other prominent battles.

Experts said the location of seven recently recovered Colt bullets may alter maps of the precise position where the regiment fought during a Federal charge on Confederate artillery and infantry at the Archibald Borden house. Its commander, Lt. Col. John Black, would receive a Medal of Honor for his leadership during the battle.

(Arkansas Archeological Survey)
Staff with the Fayetteville office of the Arkansas Archeological Survey conducted the survey at Prairie Grove Battlefield State Park in late February and the first two weeks of March. The coronavirus pandemic has halted the work and analysis of the artifacts. (June 7 update: Work recently resumed)

The four acres being studied in front of the Borden house are believed to never have been touched by metal detectors before. Mike Evans, station assistant with the survey, said he has worked many sites, but never with this many concentrated artifacts. “This area was wooded and fairly inaccessible. We wanted to take a look at the heart of the battle.”

“This is as central to that battle as you can get,” he told the Picket this week. The slope in front of the house, an orchard and other parts of the farm were the scene of two assaults each by Federal and Confederate troops.

The survey found numerous bullets, artillery shell fragments, friction primers, casings and canister. Interestingly, few personal items, such as buttons or insignia, were recovered.

“It is rich. It looks pretty thick,” Evans said of the artifacts, which he expects to number 1,000 when the crew eventually can return to the park to complete the survey. “And you are seeing little clusters. You are seeing a hot spot down the hill.”

(Note: Officials with the park and survey, which are partnering in the survey, emphasize that metal detecting and removal of artifacts from Prairie Grove by the public is prohibited.)

Confederate troops under Maj. Gen. Thomas Hindman squared off against the men of Union Brig. Gens. James Blunt and Francis Herron at Prairie Grove. While the fighting ended in somewhat of a draw, the Rebels withdrew from the field, giving the Union a strategic victory. Northwest Arkansas and Missouri would remain under Federal control for the rest of the conflict.

Casualties totaled about 2,700.

Park wanted terrain to look like 1862

Sampling of items from Prairie Grove (Arkansas Archeological Survey/AAS)
Bormann fuse for artillery (Prairie Grove Battlefield State Park)

The clearing of underbrush and thinning of trees below the Borden hill and along a foot trail was the impetus for the archaeological work, said Matt Mulheran, park interpreter at Prairie Grove since autumn 2018.

The growth “had not allowed anyone to get in there with a metal detector. All of those artifacts were there in pristine condition waiting to tell a story,” he said. The park for years had wanted to do the clearing project, and the interpreter got the ball rolling last year.

Official reports and soldier accounts showed the modern terrain was not accurate to the battle.

“That hillside was very open and the Borden family had taken a lot of time clearing the underbrush,” said Mulheran. “We wanted to get back to that landscape.”

Minie ball with impact damage, dropped.58-caliber and Enfield round (Prairie Grove BSP)
The Bordens lived on a large farm and were not aware of what was to come on the morning of Dec. 7, 1862. "A Confederate officer knocks on their door and tells them they have to flee.”

They rushed to a neighbor’s resident, where the families huddled in a cellar. The Bordens emerged after the fighting to find their home burned by Federal troops. Caldonia Borden Brandenburg years later spoke of the loss of livestock and stored food.

“All of the kinfolks and neighbors gave us food, clothing and bedding and household goods that they could spare, to help us get started again,” she said. “As soon as it was safe for us kids to go on the battle fields, we went and picked up clothes, canteens, blankets and anything we found to use. We had to put everything in boiling water to kill the “grey backs” [body lice] …”

Around 1870, the Borden family rebuilt the distinctive yellow home on the same site. They eventually moved west, Mulheran said, and others farmed the land until the 1940s or 1950s. The house eventually fell into disrepair. “There were trees growing out of the porch.”

Borden house in 1976 (Prairie Grove Battlefield State Park)
The property was acquired by the state in 1979 and rehabilitated.

Volunteers and a Bobcat with a mulching attachment have removed the undergrowth and the park will continue tree thinning and grooming this summer.

“It has come a long way in the time I have been here,” said Mulheran. “People can (now) see it just as the soldiers saw it.”

Some items came from filming of miniseries

Complicating the archaeological dig has been the presence of artillery and long gun components associated with Civil War reenactors who took part in events at the state park over the years.

Officials believe some of the recovered items date back to the filming of the 1982 television miniseries, “The Blue and the Gray,” which starred Stacy Keach and Gregory Peck and was based on Bruce Catton’s book.

Co-producer Harry Thomason spoke with The New York Times about why filming was done in the region.

''We are being extremely accurate in the spirit of this production,'' he told the newspaper. ''If purists want to say we should have filmed this picture exactly where the actual events happened, they have not visited many of those places lately. Some don't even exist anymore, and many have been overrun with commercialism. Most of the actual battlefields are covered with monuments and statues. We had 21 critical location scenes for this picture. We looked all over the country, and this 90-mile strip of western Arkansas met our requirements better than anywhere else.''

Evans, with the Arkansas Archeological Survey, says some of the artillery friction primers may be associated with reenactors.

But numerous items come from the period: Minie balls, grapeshot, Bormann fuses, exploded artillery, .69-caliber round balls, the tip of a bayonet scabbard and a piece of brass sash buckle, among them.

Much of the recovered debris is from Union guns fired from the valley toward Confederate artillery. “The hill was catching all that stuff,” Evans told the Picket.

Reenactors advance upon Borden home (Arkansas State Parks)
37th Illinois locked in fierce fighting

The ridge where the Borden home sat was the highest terrain on the battle and was an obvious place for the Confederates to place a large part of their artillery, as was done by Capt. William Blocher’s Arkansas battery. It provided a good view of a wide valley and Fayetteville-Cane Hill Road below. Gunners trained their weapons on a ford on the Illinois River.

Federal guns opened up below the Borden house, allowing for the Federal assaults. The 37th Illinois – the only veteran unit in the assaults -- took part in the second wave.

Lt. Col. John Black
Commanding them was Lt. Col. Black, who was still recovering from a wound he suffered in the right arm at the Battle of Pea Ridge (about 40 miles north, ninth months before). Black rode in to battle on horseback, his disabled arm in a sling, and led his men up the slope to the orchard. Gunfire wounded his left arm during the pitched struggle.

Although the regiment became surrounded, Mulheran told the Picket, their experience and the five-shot Colt revolving rifle somewhat evened the circumstances. Eventually, they were forced to withdraw to the valley, where they fought off a determined Confederate counterattack and protected artillery.

Decades later, Black received the Medal Honor for extraordinary heroism: “Lieutenant Colonel Black gallantly charged the position of the enemy at the head of his regiment, after two other regiments had been repulsed and driven down the hill, and captured a battery; was severely wounded,” read the citation.

Black and his brother, Capt. William Black (for heroism at Pea Ridge), were among the few siblings to receive the Medal of Honor.

The 37th had about 15% of its men killed or wounded at Prairie Grove.

A flawed weapon had its moments

The Colt revolving rifles did find success, and when used by experienced troops, they could result in a higher rate of fire.

Enfield bullet, blank from miniseries, fired Minie ball (AAS)
“They were a superior weapon but they did have a lot of trouble with them,” said Evans.

Carl Drexler, assistant research professor and station archeologist with the Arkansas Archeological Survey, said the 37th Illinois was issued about 200 of the revolving rifles prior to Pea Ridge (about 18,000 were manufactured until 1862).

Companies A and K had them, as did several Confederate regiments. But those Southern units went east of the Mississippi River before Prairie Grove.

Drexler provided this summary of the weapon by email:

As far as their efficacy and importance, it was a bit of a mixed bag. The idea behind them was to increase the individual firepower of a common soldier. The .56-caliber version (most often carried in the West) used a 5-shot cylinder that could be swapped out when empty, which made any unit armed with them a formidable opponent. Also, unlike other multi-shot weapons of the period, they did not use metallic cartridges, meaning they were usable by Confederates or anyone with a bullet mold. That was the good.

Jessica Kowalski at work (Ark. Archeological Survey)
“The bad was, well, pretty crippling to the use of the weapon. If you’ve ever fired a cap-and-ball revolver you know that you have to seal the chambers very well to prevent loose powder being exposed, because flash and hot gasses from one chamber firing can ignite exposed powder in other cylinders, causing what is called ‘chain fire.’ Given the orientation of the cylinder to the barrel, this means you’re basically shooting bullets into the frame of the gun, which usually destroys it. It also means that you have bits of lead and gun frame flying sideways. That’s startling if you’re holding a pistol out in front of you, but if you’re firing a long arm, you’re expected to be aiming with your left hand resting on the fore stock… in front of the cylinder. You now have lead, iron, brass, and flame flying at your left forearm and hand, and many soldiers wound up maimed for life as a result.

“I think around 5,000 such weapons were ordered by the U.S. Army for the war, and the above flaws kept them from being ordered in larger numbers and made them very unpopular with the troops. They are known to have been crucial in several situations, though. The 37th Illinois used them to good effect at Pea Ridge, and the 21st Ohio defended Horseshoe Ridge at the Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, with them in the early fall of 1864. They were an interesting and fairly logical idea (turn a functioning pistol design into a shoulder arm), but I would prefer to have had a Spencer.”

More work and research lie ahead

Mulheran and Evans say the discovery of the Colt rounds may put the regiment in a slightly different position than believed, perhaps a couple hundred yards away.

“By tracing where these bullets landed we can document the movement of this regiment,” Mulheran said.

Borden house is at right center (Arkansas State Parks)
Finds during the survey indicate a possible location for a Confederate battery.

More excavations and analysis are required for any new conclusions to be made.

A Facebook post from Prairie Grove Battlefield State Park summarizes what can be gleaned by such research.

Battlefield archaeology is an important science that allows researchers to gain a better understanding of what happened during the Battle of Prairie Grove. The evidence can provide new details on how we interpret the battle and completely change the current perception of events. We look forward to seeing the results of this survey.”
Before and after of hillside (Prairie Grove Battlefield State Park